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Offline kyn

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Keeping Warm!
« on: January 26, 2014, 05:13:29 PM »
Sir Douglas Strutt Galton, a Royal Engineer born in 1822, was a ”man of science” with an extensive background in engineering.  Captain of the Royal Engineers by 1855 he was soon to become Secretary to the Railway Commission, referee for plans for main drainage in London in 1857 and member of the Royal Commission on the improvement of sanitary conditions of military hospitals and barracks in 1858. 



From 1862 he was a member of the army sanitary Committee and involved with the Atlantic telegraph cable and the formation of a national physical laboratory.  Needless to say this man was highly regarded in his field and had a specific involvement in sanitary science – an interest possibly encouraged by being Florence Nightingales nephew and cousin maybe?  With this background Galton was employed from 1860 until 1862 as architect to a new hospital in Woolwich, the Royal Herbert hospital, designed by both Galton and Nightingale to increase daylight and ventilation throughout the garrison hospital.  During this time Douglas Galton designed the Galton Ventilation Grate which was widely adopted for military barracks and hospitals after writing numerous articles on sanitation, ventilating, heating and hospital construction. 

The famous Galton Ventilating grate was a new design which introduced a new idea in using heating apparatus.  General Arthur Jules Morin, French Artillery and head of the Conservatiore des Arts et Metiers, thought it to be the only original arrangement for perfect warming and ventilating with the open fireplace in that century. 



The new design of fireplace allowed the addition of warm air into a room as well as warm air coming from the fire.  The way this was done was by including an air-chamber behind the grate containing several iron flanges, air would be warmed here from the fire before being released into the room via a louvered opening at the top of the fireplace.  The iron flanges projected backwards increasing the heating effect of the chamber.  The warm air would suck cooler air through after it giving a continuous air flow through the air-chamber.

Places known to use this method of heating include the Royal Herbert Hospital, Woolwich, Cliffe Fort, Fort Borstal, Fort Horsted, with Fort Darland and Fort Bridgewoods likely to have had the same.

Both Fort Horsted and Fort Borstal's fireplaces sourced their fresh air from the tunnel connecting the casemates.







The air is sucked through the casemate wall to the chamber behind the fire.



The lower hole is where the air came up behind the fire, the upper hole is the chimney flue for the fire itself.





Cliffe Fort


Offline David

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Re: Keeping Warm!
« Reply #1 on: January 27, 2014, 03:36:53 PM »
Thanks Kyn. A lot of interesting information there.
These fireplaces can be found in most of the Victorian  land front forts at Portsmouth.

There was an interesting exchange concerning them in Hansard 1861.
Quote
COLONEL WILLIAM STUART,
in pursuance of notice, rose to call the attention of the House to the new Stoves or Stove Grates lately placed in the barracks in London, Portsmouth, Chatham, and other stations;
and to ask the Under Secretary of State for War, The name of the Inventor of these Stoves, the name of the Contractor, the cost of the Stoves themselves, and the expense of fitting them at
the different stations; also, whether any Officer in command of a district, garrison, or regiment, or any Barrack Master in charge of a station, has reported favourably of the experiment;
and whether the economy of fuel has been sufficient to justify the expense incurred in the alteration? These stoves, he was told, had caused a great consumption of fuel without anything
like a correspondent benefit, even where the number of men in the barracks had been reduced. Some of the grates had been made for the old barracks, and he understood that the expense of alteration amounted to £4,000 for Chatham and £1,500 or £2,000 for Portsmouth. He wished to ask if these alterations were going on in other portions of the country. From what he had learned, these stoves were failures, either for giving out warmth or in promoting economy. The grates were too small, and the warm air which was generated came from a height of eight feet from the ground. The tendency of this state of things was to make heads hot and feet cold. The sufferings of the men daring the passing winter had been considerable; in many instances the men were glad to get a rug from another man’s bed. The barrack masters had been ordered to try these stoves, and one principal defect was found to be, that fuel which had formerly lasted seven days was consumed in live, and when a requisition was sent for more fuel the reply was that the regular winter allowance had already been issued. Many of the officers were obliged to supply fuel at their own expense. All the while the Estimates were largely increasing. The Estimate for fuel and lights in 1859 was only £96,000, in 1860–61 it was £112,000, and for the present year it amounted to £172,000. He complained of the great expense of these experiments being forced on the country, to the discomfort of those immediately affected by them. In this way large sums were annually frittered away in trying experiments which turned out to be failures.

MR. T. G. BARING,
in reply to the Questions put by the gallant Officer, begged to state that the inventor of these stoves was Captain Galton, an officer who had paid great attention to the improvement of the comfort of the soldier, and the contractor was Mr. Kennard. Captain Galton had no pecuniary interest in the matter. The stoves were designed for ventilating as well as warming, and he had been informed by Major Buckley, Barrack Master at Chatham, that by their use fresh air was introduced into the barrack rooms, so that the air was pure and sweet, even after the men had slept in them all night. Having been to the barracks and seen the stoves in operation he quite admitted that there was some inconvenience in them. They did not produce so large a fire or afford the same convenience to the soldier in heating his dinner as the former stoves. There were some defects to be remedied; but after the alterations suggested had been made he thought that the objection to the stoves would to a great extent be removed. The expense of putting up these stoves had, no doubt, been very considerable, chiefly on account of the apparatus for ventilating; but the actual cost of the stoves themselves was very small—only £3 10s. for the medium size, and £3 15s. for the large size. The expense occasioned was chiefly with a view to ventilation.

COLONEL GILPIN
said, he was one of the officers who had tried these stoves at Portsmouth, and could state that these stoves were an utter and entire failure. What might be the effect of the improvements suggested he could not say, but on one occasion, when he went round his barrack-room, a thermometer being placed at either end, he found the one where the stove was to introduce hot air at zero, and where there was to be no hot air the thermometer stood much higher. The stoves were also condemned by the medical officers of the regiment, and he believed also by the general commanding in the district. As far as regarded Portsmouth garrison he believed there had not been a single report in favour of the stoves except from the inventor.

This is the arrangement found at Forts Brockhurst, Grange and Rowner of the Gosport Advanced Lines:
David Moore

Die, my dear Doctor? Thats the last thing I shall do. - Palmerston (attrib)

Offline kyn

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Re: Keeping Warm!
« Reply #2 on: January 27, 2014, 06:01:38 PM »
I am quite amazed that they carried on constructing these although they were proved to be useless!  I guess they didn't have a better suggestion...

Offline David

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Re: Keeping Warm!
« Reply #3 on: January 28, 2014, 11:02:32 AM »
Perhaps they had solved the problems and made the fires more efficient.
David Moore

Die, my dear Doctor? Thats the last thing I shall do. - Palmerston (attrib)

Offline kyn

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Re: Keeping Warm!
« Reply #4 on: January 28, 2014, 07:54:19 PM »
Possibly, it would be interesting to see if the designs were different but I really struggled to find the one I copied out, and can only assume that it is a design similar to the one used for the Medway forts.

Offline David

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Re: Keeping Warm!
« Reply #5 on: February 06, 2014, 12:12:20 PM »
Summary of Principles adopted by the Army Sanitary Commissioners on
Barrack Ventilation.   Appendix to the 1868 Commissioners' report.
1. Ventilating each room by itself, independently of any other room.
2. Providing each room with a shaft passing from the ceiling to above the roof.
3. Closing up all inlets near the floor, where such have existed, and substituting others near the ceiling, so constructed as to ensure the diffusion of the inflowing current.
4. Re-modelling the fire grates and providing a chamber at the back for heating fresh air drawn from without, and to be introduced warm above the level of the men's heads.
5. Ventilating all passages, staircases and corridors, by shafts and perforated squares of glass(*), independently of the rooms.
6. Providing as nearly as possible 1200 cubic feet of fresh air per man per hour in a room space of 600 cubic feet per man.
7. Providing for the ventilation of all gas burners by funnels in the ceiling and pipes communicating from them to the open air. (ibid)
* presumably glazed air bricks were also mentioned in the full 'Principles'.
David Moore

Die, my dear Doctor? Thats the last thing I shall do. - Palmerston (attrib)

Offline David

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Re: Keeping Warm!
« Reply #6 on: February 06, 2014, 12:37:22 PM »
This plate is from a paper to RUSI by Jervois 'Observations relating to the Works In Progress and proposed for the Defence of the Naval Ports, Arsenals and Dockyards' 1868) and clearly shows the ventilation fitted to the barrack casemates forts of Gosport Advanced Lines, Rowner, Grange and Brockhurst.
David Moore

Die, my dear Doctor? Thats the last thing I shall do. - Palmerston (attrib)